Temps de lecture :3 minutes
ROME – (AFP) – Global governance of food security and a so-called new world food order were on the table at World Food Day talks held by the United Nations on Tuesday in the face of drought and high prices.
The United Nations focused the talks in Rome on lowering food prices which have been pushed up by droughts in Australia and the United States and a drop in harvests in Europe and the Black Sea region.
A meeting at the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) chaired by French Agriculture Minister Stephane Le Foll brought together ministers from 20 countries including major producers and import-dependent developing countries.
“The key is to ensure global governance on food issues,” Le Foll said.
“Discussions were held on transparency in agricultural markets, the coordination of international actions, response to the global demand for food and the fight against the effects of volatility,” he added.
FAO chief Jose Graziano Da Silva said: “Food prices and volatility have increased in recent years. This is expected to continue in the medium-term.”
He said new mechanisms for stronger global governance of food security that are being set up were part of “a new world order that needs to emerge.”
But there were divisions among participants at the meeting, with the United States voicing strong opposition to the proposal of setting up strategic food reserves in particularly vulnerable countries, to be tapped when prices spike.
Graziano Da Silva said establishing reserves could be “an instrument to avoid poor countries paying the price” of price rises — although FAO’s official position is only in favour of setting up “small emergency stocks”.
“If you bolster the size of the stocks, you increase difficulties in terms of costs and management,” said FAO’s David Hallam, who is in charge of markets.
FAO said the talks were aimed at boosting “the effectiveness of measures to address food price volatility and to reduce its impact on the most vulnerable.”
Global food prices rose by 1.4 percent last month, after holding steady for two months, as cereals, meat and dairy prices climbed, the FAO said earlier.
The food import bill for poor countries is therefore estimated to rise by 3.7 percentage points from last year to $36.5 billion (28.1 billion euros).
The FAO estimates that about 870 million people in the world — or one in eight humans — suffer from hunger, saying the figure is “unacceptably high” even though it has gone down from more than a billion in the early 1990s.
The UN’s special rapporteur on the right to food, Olivier De Schutter, said that figure rises to 1.5 billion people if you include malnourishment which hampers the physical and psychological developments of children.
When global food prices rise as they are doing now “it is not just that there are fewer meals but the meals are also less varied,” De Schutter said, adding: “This threat is not really seen as a priority but it should be.”
Graziano Da Silva said it was vital to help small farmers as a way of combating hunger and World Food Day events highlighted the crucial role played by farming cooperatives in the developing world.
He underlined the fact that the figure of the number of people suffering from hunger had stopped going down over the past five years.
“The numbers are increasing in Africa and the Middle East,” he said.
“We cannot tolerate this in a land of plenty where production is sufficient for everyone,” he said, adding that the funds for aid and agriculture budgets had gone down over the past three decades, stranding small farmers.
“They have had to fight to adapt,” he said.
Graziano Da Silva added that promises made by governments to eradicate hunger made when prices hit record highs in 2007 and 2008 had not been kept.
The non-governmental group Action Against Hunger said that “some 100 million more people have become under-nourished” due to the price rises of 2008.
In a message to mark World Food Day, Pope Benedict XVI hailed cooperatives as “an expression of true susbidiarity” and urged the international community to come up with legal and financial mechanisms to strengthen them.
The pope also emphasised the “vital role” played by women in cooperatives.