Bosnia and Herzegovina

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Temps de lecture : 2 minutes  


Sarajevo, Bosnie-Herzégovine © AFP-PHOTO Elvis Barukcic

After Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina is the second-poorest republic of the former Yugoslavia. The republic is landlocked but for 20 km of Adriatic coastline. The longest rivers are the Neretva and the Sava which forms the border with Croatia. In this highly rural country with a low population density, 80% of industrial sites were destroyed during the civil war. Anti-personnel mines still plague 3.5% of the countryside (1,889 km²), and the quantity of unexploded ordnance (UXO) is estimated at 220,000. Nonetheless, country reconstruction is in full swing.


Forests: Bosnia and Herzegovina is home to some well-conserved forests, the country’s main natural resource, covering 40% of the national territory. However, logging practices are outdated and the landmine problem does not help the issue.

The country’s rivers are extensively polluted by the considerable quantities of urban raw sewage discharged into them.

Energy: owing to the use of obsolete technology (according to the World Bank), the existing hydroelectric grid is operated at only 25% capacity. Rather than investing in existing dams, investors favour the construction of new dams – two in the Vrbas Canyon upstream from Banja Luka – despite the disturbance to local ecosystems.

Adequate monitoring and conservation is lacking in national parks.


An NGO founded in 1999 in Banja Luka, first known as Young Researchers (Mladi istrazivaci), aims to “raise awareness”. It was renamed the Environment Centre (Centar za zivotnu sredinu) in March 2006.

Bosnie-Herzégovine carte
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