Ozone depletion itself is not the principal cause of climate change. However, because ozone absorbs solar radiation and is a greenhouse gas, ozone changes and climate change are linked in important ways. Stratospheric ozone depletion and increases in global tropospheric ozone that have occurred in recent decades both contribute to climate change. These contributions to climate change are significant but small compared with the total contribution from all other greenhouse gases. Ozone and climate change are indirectly linked because both ozone-depleting gases and substitute gases contribute to climate change.
Radiative forcing of climate change.
Human activities and natural processes have led to the accumulation in the atmosphere of several long-lived and radiatively active gases known as “greenhouse gases”. Ozone is a greenhouse gas, along with carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and halogen source gases. The accumulation of these gases in Earth’s atmosphere changes the balance between incoming solar radiation and outgoing infrared radiation. Greenhouse gases generally change the balance by absorbing outgoing radiation, leading to a warming at Earth’s surface. This change in Earth’s radiative balance is called a radiative forcing of climate change […]. All forcings shown relate to human activities. Positive forcings generally lead to warming and negative forcings lead to cooling of Earth’s surface.
The accumulation of carbon dioxide represents the largest forcing term. Carbon dioxide concentrations are increasing in the atmosphere primarily as the result of burning coal, oil, and natural gas for energy and transportation; and from cement manufacturing. The atmospheric abundance of carbon dioxide is currently about 35% above what it was 250 years ago, in preindustrial times.
In other international assessments, much of the observed surface warming over the last 50 years has been linked to increases in carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas concentrations caused by human activities.
Climate change from atmospheric gas changes. Human activities since the start of the Industrial
Stratospheric ozone depletion causes a negative radiative forcing, while increases in tropospheric ozone cause a positive radiative forcing (see Fig. 1). The radiative forcing due to tropospheric ozone increases is currently larger than that associated with stratospheric ozone depletion. The negative forcing from ozone depletion represents an offset to the positive forcing from the halogen source gases, which cause ozone depletion. Halogen source gases and HFCs. An important link between ozone depletion and climate change is the radiative forcing from halogen source gases and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Halogen source gases are the cause of ozone depletion and HFCs are substitute gases. Both groups of gases cause radiative forcing in the atmosphere, but with a wide range of effectiveness. The principal gases in each group are intercompared in Figure Q18-2 (top panel) using their “ozone depletion potentials” (ODPs) and”global warming potentials” (GWPs), which indicate the effectiveness of each gas in causing 2 ozone depletion and climate change, respectively. The ODPs of CFC-11 and CFC-12, and the GWP of CO2 all are assigned a value of 1.0. For ozone depletion, the halons are the most effective gases (for equal mass amounts) and HFCs cause no ozone depletion. For climate change, all gases make a contribution, with CFC-12 and HFC-23 having the largest effect (for equal mass amounts). Montreal Protocol actions that have led to reductions in CFC concentrations and increases in HCFC and HFC concentrations have also reduced the total radiative forcing from these gases. It is important to note that, despite a GWP that is small in comparison to many other greenhouse gases, CO2 is the most important greenhouse gas related
to human activities because its atmospheric abundance is so much greater than the abundance of other gases.
As a group, the principal halogen source gases represent a positive direct radiative forcing in the Industrial Era that is comparable to the forcing from methane, the second most important greenhouse gas. In the coming decades, the abundances of these ozone-depleting gases and their associated positive radiative forcings are expected to decrease (see Q16). Future growth in HFC emissions, while uncertain, will contribute a positive forcing that will counter the decrease from ozone depleting gases. Finally, reductions in ozone-depleting gases will be followed by reductions
in stratospheric ozone depletion and its associated negative radiative forcing.
Impact of climate change on ozone.
Certain changes in Earth’s climate could affect the future of the ozone layer. Stratospheric ozone is influenced by changes in temperatures and winds in the stratosphere. For example, lower temperatures and stronger polar winds could both affect the extent and severity of winter polar ozone depletion. While the Earth’s surface is expected to warm in response to the net positive radiative forcing from greenhouse gas increases, the stratosphere is expected to cool. A cooler stratosphere would extend the time period over which polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are present in polar regions and, as a result, might increase winter ozone depletion. In the upper stratosphere at altitudes above PSC formation regions, a cooler stratosphere is expected to increase ozone amounts and, hence, hasten recovery, because lower temperatures favour ozone production over loss.
Similarly, changes in atmospheric composition that lead to a warmer climate may also alter ozone amounts.
Human activities since the start of the Industrial Era (around 1750) have caused increases in the abundances of several long lived gases, changing the radiative balance of Earth’s atmosphere. These gases, known as “greenhouse gases”, result in radiative forcings, which can lead to climate change. Other international assessments have shown that the largest radiative forcings come from carbon dioxide, followed by methane, tropospheric ozone, the halogencontaining gases, and nitrous oxide. Ozone increases in the troposphere result from pollution associated with human activities. All these forcings are positive, which leads to a warming of Earth’s surface. In contrast, stratospheric ozone depletion represents a small negative forcing, which leads to cooling of Earth’s surface. In the coming decades, halogen gas abundances and stratospheric ozone depletion are expected to be reduced along with their associated radiative forcings. The link between these two forcing terms is an important aspect of the radiative forcing of climate change.