Since 1960, principality of Monaco uses the sea water’s thermal energy to produce the energy for 74 % of the principality’s needs.
A system of heat pumps draws two types of sea water with a 20°C difference in temperature from different depths (two sources are always necessary for a thermal machine to work : a hot source and a cold source). The water then goes into a heat exchanger which supplies traditional heat pumps. These then produce electricity for air conditioning, heating and hot water for a 60 000 m² area. For every 1 kWh needed to make it work, the system which is silent and clean gives back 3 to 4 kWh. The area’s energy bill is therefore three times lower.