The oceans and seas of the world, which cover 71% of the earth’s surface, still remain the least known territories. Only 10% of deep ocean cartography has been indexed and to date, only 2% of the ocean floor has been explored. According to scientific estimations, these ecosystems provide a habitat for 90% of the biomass and 80% of the biodiversity in the world – of which, as yet only 5% are known (274 000 marine species).
In addition to their ecological importance, oceans feed 3.5 billion human beings. The fishing and aquaculture industries employ 35 million people in the world, and the produce of the sea makes up at least half of mineral provisions and animal proteins for Africa and South Asia. Marine territories also provide support and resources for human activities: transport, tourism, minerals (bromine, magnesium etc.) and energy (gas, petrol, oil, tides, currents, etc). 30% of petrol production in the world is extracted fr...